International licensing is a structural element of international scientific and technical cooperation, which takes the form of international licensing trade in invention licenses, patents, technologies, and know-how.
A license is a permit issued by a licensor to a licensee for the industrial and/or commercial use of an invention for a specified period of time for a fee. License trade in the global market is carried out through the conclusion of license agreements.
The main types of license agreements:
A simple license – the licensor allows the licensee to use the invention under certain conditions, while reserving the right to use it independently and to issue similar licenses to other interested parties.
Exclusive license – the licensor has the right to use the invention itself and allows the licensee to use the invention exclusively.
Full license – the licensor transfers all rights to the licensee.
Types of license fees for granting license rights to use an invention:
- Royalties are periodic percentage payments.
- A lump sum payment is an amount clearly stated in the agreement that is paid as a lump sum (or in installments).
- Cross-licensing is the exchange of licenses or patents that are intended to be equivalent.
- An upfront fee is a payment that reimburses the licensor’s costs before the license agreement is executed.
- Transfer of securities and granting of the right to participate in profits.
Objects of international licensing:
- developments of a constructive, technological nature,
- composition of materials, substances or alloys,
- methods of treatment,
- methods of prospecting and mining,
- trademarks and industrial marks.
International licensing is characterized by such a concept as patent purity, which is a legal property of an object that means that it can be used in a given country without violating the exclusive rights in force in its territory (patents owned by third parties).
In practice, license agreements are valid for 3 to 10 years, and longer for licenses that require significant capital expenditures.
International engineering is a form of international scientific and technical cooperation, which is a set of intellectual activities whose ultimate goal is to obtain the best results from foreign investments or other costs associated with the implementation of projects of various engineering and consulting types.
In other words, international engineering is the provision of engineering and consulting services.
Types of engineering services:
- Pre-project services – research related to the study of the market for goods that the facility to be built will produce; topographic surveys; development of the transport network.
- Design services – project preparation, project cost estimation, project expertise, working drawings, supervision of work.
- Post-project services – preparation of a construction contract, construction, installation of equipment, consultations on equipment operation.
International inter-university scientific relations. The activities of the UIPI
Traditionally, the main scientific research in Europe is carried out more in research institutes, while in the United States, traditional science is created in universities, and applied science is created in research laboratories at large companies.
Specialization in science at the global level contributes to its significant progress. The exchange of scientific knowledge takes place in various ways: through scientific literature, the work of leading scientists in different countries, the creation of joint research institutions, and various symposia and conferences.
The system of exchange in the field of education is somewhat less developed, based on links between universities. The most common forms of international relations at the level of higher education are: exchange of experience and information, exchange of teachers, researchers and students, joint research activities, and internships for young professionals.